Accept rice measures technology and miniature intelligence apparatus

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Accept rice measures a technology to show measure is 0.

The measurement of 01nm ~ 100nm technology. In accept rice technology, accept rice measures technology, Namijia to be versed in technology and accept rice structure stand side by side the theme of 3 old research of technology of the rice that it is accept. Accept rice measures the main component that technical research is research of accept rice technology. Miniature intelligence apparatus will be in development of 21 centuries instrument have important place, all sorts of miniature intelligence apparatuses will produce main effect. Miniature intelligence apparatus can fetters different micro computer electronic system (MEMS) assemble together. It has fixed part already, have mobile part again, and to tiny chip compositive change direction to develop; Can be special apparatus already, can be general instrument; Can be the combination of subsystem, also can be separate system. Can have modular combination, fulfil different use requirement according to different utility. Miniature intelligence apparatus is having extremely wide application perspective, it is one of important way that MEMS technology develops. 1.

Accept rice measures technical accept rice to measure a technology to involve microscope of bougie of sensor technology, bougie technology, fixed position technology, scanning (SPM) technology. 1.

No matter why is 1 sensor technology planted accept rice measures a technology to must rely on sensor. The sensor that measures into travel accept rice at present basically is divided interfere sensor for inductance sensor, capacitance sensor, light 3 kinds. Measure in high accuracy in, inductance sensor application is the widest. General inductance sensor has linear differential transformer (LVDT) with linear differential inductor (LVDI) two kinds of forms, they are the change that causes magnetic field when the positional change of iron magnetism coil, through measuring magnetic field change achieves the goal that measures displacement. Capacitance displacement sensor uses the capacitance change between parallel plate to mirror two plate to be apart from change, achieve thereby measure small purpose. Capacitance sensor sensitivity is very tall, can undertake is not osculatory metrical, the important sensor in becoming accept rice to measure. The fundamental that optical displacement sensor measures is interferometer of Michael Er abdicate. The width that interferes stripe is 0.

5 λ , about 0.

2 μ M. Reach accept rice resolution through fractionize. 1.

Rice of accept of 2 bougie technology is measured, especially accept rice is three-dimensional the measurement of form appearance, often use bougie technology. Bougie technology can be divided for contact bougie technology and technology of blame contact bougie. Bougie technology affects the transverse resolution that three-dimensional form appearance measures directly. Contact bougie technology is most typical is contourgraph (be like Taylorsurf series) , general the greatest distance is 150mm, the smallest diameter is bougie 0.

1 μ M is controlled. Use capacitance or inductance sensor to detect bougie is fore-and-aft displacement, can get 0.

5nm fore-and-aft resolution. Transverse resolution accepts the restriction of bougie pointed diameter, reach accept rice level hard. Contact bougie instrument puts in the problem of two respects: It is bougie and the interaction problem of the surface that be measured firstly; It is the latent capacity issue that sends feeling system secondly. Contact bougie is put in 0 with the surface that be measured.

The active force of 7 μ N, in the measurement of accept rice measure, such force is deadly. As send feeling share, the resolution of optical system depends on the degree of smooth wavelengh and reliable fractionize, its limit is 0.

5nm; The resolution of LVDT is very high, can have to value of 10pm slow change answer apparently, and resolution rises possibly still; The performance of capacitance sensor is quite good, still have very large latent capacity. Be not technology of contact scanning bougie, it is to pass beam of light to build smooth probe commonly, undertake three-dimensional form appearance is measured is not contact thereby. The least value that main problem is bougie facula and sensor can explore smooth bougie technology the ability of the smallest facula. The place on put together is narrated, in scanning bougie technology, perpendicular resolution achieves accept rice unchallenged, and of transverse resolution rising is crucial. Transverse resolution, no matter use contact bougie technology or technology of blame contact bougie, measure of rice of more inaccessible accept, this is decided by bougie itself dimension. 1.

3STM/AFM and relevant technology are in accept rice domain, those who make a person feel rise with force and spirit is scanning channel microscope (STM) and nuclear power microscope (the occurrence of AFM) . 1982, development of laboratory of Su Li age of company of international business machine goes the first STM, make the mankind can observe directly accept rice world. After, microscope of all sorts of new-style scanning bougie, like microscope of force of AFM, laser (LFM) , magnetic force microscope (MFM) , electrostatic force microscope (EFM) , microscope of optics of scanning near field (SNOM) wait to be come out by development ceaselessly, expanded greatly the material limits that is observed and applied place. It is the microscope that the base grows with STM/AFM, but a general designation is scanning bougie microscope (SPM) . They mostly can observation arrives accept rice measure, it is a foundation with them, undertake be transforminged appropriately, can undertake accept rice is measured. When SPM applies Yunami to measure, offerred the blame contact bougie with a very small diameter, rose to measure resolution greatly thereby. 1.

4 accept rice measures the problem that must solve with SPM (1) must the technology of can contented corresponding and scientific instrument asks to serve as a measuring instrument implement, must accord with all criterion that measure an instrument as far as possible, wait like Abbe principle. (The value of a quantity that 2) place measures must can trace to the source metric and fiducial as measure an instrument to undertake accept rice measure, it is accept rice constitutionally the measure that be measured and accept rice class are measured fiducial than be opposite, accordingly, measured value must can measure with what have fiducial undertake delivering. (3) raises SPM to measure precision with SPM by scanner, small bougie, measure composition of control system and vibration isolation system. The scanner is comprised by the pottery and porcelain that suppress report; The geometrical appearance of small bougie is pyramid type normally (Pyramid Shaped) with columnar type (Cone Shaped Tip) ; Measure and control a system to use optical, capacitance or inductance method to measure pinpoint tiny displacement; Vibration isolation system has type of damp of pensile spring, bedspring to wait commonly, they all are the main index that the influence measures precision. Have content of the following research: A.

The scanner that reduces SPM of error of the pottery and porcelain that suppress report is made by the pottery and porcelain that suppress report, reducing error of the pottery and porcelain that suppress report is to measuring the method of the influence of data, use charge to control the pottery and porcelain that suppress report and error of arrearage of one-way scanning purify, software compensation is reduced nonlinear with creep error. B.

The error of structure of structural error scanner that reduces a scanner caused alternate error, if one dimension presses electric pottery and porcelain, when X direction increases tension, caused the displacement of direction of Y, Z, cause an error thereby. Through undertaking 2 times to what measuring data the curve plans to close or integral curved surface plans to add up to purify across error. C.

Reduce the structural error that surveys a system from measure learned fundamental knowable, when high accuracy is measured, the structure that surveys a system should accord with Abbe to measure a principle as far as possible. D.

Closely related the appearance of most advanced geometry of the bougie of interaction relation SPM between bougie of give attention to two or morethings and sample and collection number Ju. Measure pinpoint curvature radius smaller, measure a result to be close to true body appearance more. Measure precision to rise, must undertake control and be metricaled accurately to the geometrical appearance of small bougie. When using, the careful degree of surface of sample of give attention to two or morethings, choose the bougie of appropriate curvature radius and aspect ratio. 1.

The accept rice that rice of 5 other accept measures technical other measures a technology to return a lot of, if laser accept rice measures a technology,with respect to rice having offer 0 difference detect heterodyne of rice of law, accept detects mixing of rice of law, accept detects the law. Rice of a few kinds of accept measures brief introduction below technology. (Technology of scanning of 1) optical near field is current optical and microscopical technical resolution gets of diffractive rule affect and be by limitation inside the sweep range of 500nm. To eliminate diffractive appearance, will optical scanning is located in 50nm of target surface less than to be in surely. The instrument below this kind of circumstance is in optics " near field " . Beam guider explores usable taper to be studied radiation quanta of the surface. The transverse resolution of technology of scanning of optical near field can amount to 10nm, can use the optical property that studies accept rice small area. (Laser of principle of interferometer of heterodyne of scanning of smooth bougie of 2) accept rice gives out stimulate spectroscope of classics of beam of light to be divided to be two bundles: A bundle of smooth classics is acousto-optic after modulator, its frequency is F+f1, this beam of light enters photoelectricity detector via certain smooth way; Another bundle of course is acousto-optic modulator, its frequency is F+f2, this beam of light is measured via be being gone to by illuminate of field lens assemble after illuminator apparently, reflection hind also enters photoelectricity detector, two bundles of laser are in above to at least the synthesis on the detector that the frequency of F1-f2 spends produces heterodyne to interfere namely. Obtain exterior information through interfering signal. (The experiment with inchoate principle of 3)X ray interferometer proves, the quantitative class of X ray wavelengh is about 0.

1nm, the atomic span in crystal also is this amount class, then Laue suggested to serve as diffractive grating with crystal 1912. Let X ray pass bluestone crystal, a few bright dot designs that can get intermediate macula and periphery semmetry distributing on the sensitive film at the back of it, call Laue the graph. With likeness of visible light bar, the center is 0 class maximum like the diffraction of bright dot and visible light, and periphery because atomic is outer,bright dot is the electron is below the action of X ray, the effect of the overlay of scattering smooth place that blasts off 2 times. Principle of X ray interferometer and grating are similar, it is the light turns into nevertheless the X ray with shorter wavelengh, receiving signal is interference stripe just. 1.

6 look into accept rice to measure a technology to be taken seriously generally of world each country, the developed country makes accept rice measure development strategy of the technology in succession. As the measurement of accept rice resolution sensor appears already, scanning electron microscope (SEM) already invented in 30 time. But the mankind watchs universal time in research accept, take the quantitative research of pair of three-dimensional condition seriously more. The author thinks, can undertake rice of accept of three-dimensional form appearance is measured truly at present have all sorts of SPM technologies that are based on STM/AFM only, most SPM can amount to the level of accept rice resolution, transform to them can obtain all sorts of metric model SPM. When SPM measures an instrument as accept rice, two problems deserve more research: It is a small bougie firstly when be not contact to measure as a kind, how to rise measure precision and expand measure range; Another problem is to pass Namijia to be versed in technical treatment goes out can trace to the source to have standard accept rice model directly. Only such, talent of accept rice technique applies to more places, make the powerful tool that people has accept rice technology studies truly. 2.

Apparatus of intelligence of miniature of miniature intelligence apparatus points to microelectronics technology, small mechanical technology, IT to wait to apply integratedly in the production of the instrument, make the instrument makes bulk thereby the intelligent apparatus with small, all ready function, the processing of the collection that can finish signal, linearization, digital signal processing, output that controls signal, enlarge, interface with other instrument, with the person wait for a function interactively. Miniature intelligence apparatus belongs to the research category of microelectronics machine system. When using, need to press systematic need only, choose apparatus of different miniature intelligence to undertake assorted can. Miniature intelligence apparatus is trend of a after instrument and microelectronics machine technology are united in wedlock necessary evolution, the major change that its implementation will bring instrument technology, sensor technology, IT to wait. Miniature intelligence apparatus uses microelectronics machine normally technical general much sensor is compositive together, output with the information processing unit that handles signal and control again compositive. According to need, measurable the parameter that is interested with assess place, transmit control signal to the place of need. This system, can appraise measures the noise that produces by mutual interference. In human body, pass feeling signal to pass neurological will receive and send brain, use by cerebrum natural " collateral computation system " evaluate them well and truly reliably, control corresponding executive apparatus again finally, miniature intelligence apparatus is expected to have similar function. 2.

The possibility that apparatus of 1 miniature intelligence admits (the ceaseless development of 1) small sensor is current, sensor has smaller and smaller tendency. Can realize onefold small sensor to arrive through MEMS technology the compositive sensor system of dinky dimension. Appearing today many small sensor, they have development future and wide market perspective very much. Of world market size year increasing an amount is about 20% , and have a lot of competitor. It is support with MEMS technology, can achieve an independent market of small sensor completely, the industrial automation in future, environmental protection, production and processing technique and martial domain will produce very big effect. (The compositive, sensor that the essence of the apparatus of intelligence of ceaseless and contractible miniature that 2) information processing unit accumulates is much sensor and signal of the compositive, information processing with unit information processing and control are outputted. The CPU that corresponding Yu Hong watchs information processing unit. As a result of the development of microelectronics technology, the line of parts of an apparatus is at present broad can amount to 0.

18 μ M, of microelectronics compositive degree taller, accordingly but make part of circuit of unit of miniature sensor, information processing, output intelligent apparatus. (3) is enclosed, system of circuit of compositive, modulus compositive the apparatus of development miniature intelligence that waits for a technology should involve all MEMS technologies almost. In apparatus of intelligence of a miniature, have the sensitive data of all sorts of sensor and structure not only, even imitate circuit, number circuit, information memory circuit, information processing circuit waits. If enclose,this solves a few corresponding crucial technologies with respect to need, system circuit of technology of compositive, join, modulus is compositive etc. These problems had gotten certain settlement in MEMS technology, because this is in the research henceforth, the development that can be miniature intelligence apparatus provides technical support. 2.

The inevitability that apparatus of 2 miniature intelligence develops (the development with modular 1) is modular development can offer huge to go to the lavatory to people. Current sensor, often want the design of circuit of the buy before undertaking according to the itself of sensor, the demarcate that has a system even, spend a large number of time not only, and the result often is paid no attention to want. And miniature intelligence apparatus is a module, right the person that use, the output that needs to care it only can, other all is finished by intelligent apparatus itself. Modular trend is the inevitable trend that the system designs, also raise similar requirement to miniature intelligence apparatus necessarily. (The development information of information processing gets 2) and processing is faster and faster, when people is undertaking signal is collected, hope a lot of jobs are finished by the parts of an apparatus beyond CPU. Miniature intelligence apparatus can regard the periphery of a computer as the component, it can complete all works of conventional intelligence apparatus already, transmit useful information to the computer again at the same time. Such making that measure control a system more concise, efficiency rises. (Compositive continuity develops 3) system miniature sensor bulk small, cost is low, already had very great progress at present. Of much sensor compositive already had a lot of research positive result, the price fall of information processing unit, bulk is reduced, imitate number circuit is compositive on silicon chip, these technologies are having same technical base, because this can be used,at present a few compositive technologies or course develop further, of system of apparatus of intelligence of the miniature that finish compositive. 2.

The problem on the problem technology on 3 technologies is how to be made not only, likewise important still have standardization problem. The sort of sensor is very at present much, principle each different, using same processing circuit and information processing unit is impossible. And the sensor of span, different to differring principle impossible avery kind of manufactures circuit of unit of an information processing, because this must have a production level, the small component part in method of different function, different treatment is compositive when be together, make numerous problem has corresponding directive standard. This means what must build miniature intelligence apparatus all sorts of standards. Follow these standards only, ability of miniature intelligence apparatus is moved toward flourishingly development road. 2.

4 look into at present, the concerned research of miniature intelligence apparatus is very few still, but relevant technology research is very much however, for example, the development of sensor of of all kinds miniature has begun, some already industrialization. Development of Argnonne state key laboratory goes small sensor of a kind of gas, apply electroanalysis coulombmeter passes feeling interlining to produce telegraphic number through metal of a pottery and porcelain, this kind of sensor contains calculative nerve network, can handle simple sampling signal to undertake training, identify, classification; The data described the problem such as the confluence of compositive, data of a variety of sensor and application. Visible, the research of miniature intelligence apparatus has certain base. The ceaseless development of miniature intelligence apparatus as microelectronics machine technology, its technology matures ceaselessly, the price will be reduced ceaselessly, accordingly its apply a domain to also will expand ceaselessly. It not only can have traditional instrument function, and distinct effect can have in domain of technology of automation technology, spaceflight, military affairs, biology, medical treatment, for example, want to measure a few of a patient different parameter at the same time at present, have the control of certain amount, should insert into a few pipe inside the patient's body normally, this increased the chance of infection, miniature intelligence apparatus can measure multi-parameter at the same time, and volume is minor, but embedded human body, make these problems get settlement. The use of miniature intelligence apparatus will become very simple, because apparatus of this miniature intelligence has huge market and applied perspective. 3.

Epilogue accept rice measures a technology to accompanying Namike to learn to enter 21 centuries in the round, it drives the development of science and technology not only, also can promote economic development at the same time. Accept rice measures a technology to will make the strong tool with people conquer nature, natural exploration. Miniature intelligence apparatus is the significant progress direction of the instrument, it will create more markets, make our life more comfortable, production is more convenient. CNC Milling