The synergic charge that network makes and productivity are improved

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Summary: From trade the classification that expense theory angle summed up charge of the cooperation in production coordination process and origin. The way of production cooperation behavior that makes mode fall to traditional production pattern and network and synergic charge undertook contrast, the limits that analysed network to make mode because the enterprise chooses a partner,fall with systematic theory increases, products plan production cycle shortens, specialization level of division of labor rises, the vitrification of information and cooperative process is right the influence of business productivity. Network production mode is had reduce synergic charge and the dominant position that improve business productivity. Keyword: Network is made; Trade charge is academic; Systematic theory; Synergic charge; The graph in productivity classifies date: TP14; F403.

3 document label piles up: XU Xiang-hong 1 of  of A The Improvement Of Transaction Cost And Productivity In Net-based Manufacturing, GU Xin-jian 1, CHEN Zi-chen 1,  of JIN Xue-jun 2 (1.

Institute Of Production Engineering Zhejiang University, hangzhou 310027, china;  2.

College Of Economics, zhejiang University, hangzhou 310027, china)  Abstract:FRom The Viewpoint Of The Transaction Cost Theory, the Classification And Sources Of The Cooperation Costs Of Manufacturing Cooperation Are Summarized.

The Behavior Manners And Cooperation Costs Of Manufacturing Cooperation In The Net-based Manufacturing Mode Are Compared With The Counterparts In The Traditional Manufacturing Mode.

The System Theory Is Applied To Analyze The Impact Of The Net-based Manufacturing Mode On Enterprises Productivity From Four Aspects Including The Enlarging Scope Of Partner Selection, the Shortening Lead-time Of New Products, the Furthering Of Specialization And The Transparency Of Information And Transaction Process.

It Is Concluded That The Net-based Manufacturing Mode Can Significantly Lower Both Direct And Opportunity Transaction Costs Of Manufacturing Cooperation And Greatly Improve Enterprises Productivity.

 Key Words:nThe development of technology of network of foreword of Et Based Manufacturing; Transaction Cost Theory; System Theory;cooperation Cost; Productivity and application accelerated the process of global economic integration, the development that also is manufacturing industry offerred opportunity. Current, the network that can get used to changeful market demand makes mode be being formed, it network IT and traditional manufacturing industry shirt-sleeve, the enterprise uses computer network (like Internet) plan of the product that finish, design, make and each cooperation such as the sale, if seek the information of market supply and demand of the product and treatment job, search right product to produce the partner, product that is based on a network to cooperate with to development is designed and be made, and service of the sale of the product, client, the resource between is shared and optimize combination in order to realize an enterprise to use, those who strengthen a business is flexible with nimble sex, answer the demand of the market quickly. Network is made what can accelerate the compositive, process between the enterprise is compositive with information compositive, network produces one of main research content that already made contemporary and compositive production system.  the article above all from trade the angle of expense theory, analysed network to make the synergic charge in process of the coordination between the enterprise below mode, undertake contrast with traditional production pattern, next the angle from systematic theory, analysed network to make mode photograph create the productivity dominant position of mode to the tradition, with period the understanding that deepens pair of network to create pattern, the application of stimulative network IT in our country manufacturing industry, come true to make the change of mode to network from traditional production pattern quickly, the competitive capacity that increases our country manufacturing industry to go up in the international market. The synergic cost dominant position that 1 network of  creates 1.

The meaning of 1 cooperation charge the synergic charge that the article indicates and economics trade mediumly the notional photograph of charge is similar. In economics, trade charge still defines   without what unite completely [1] . Division this think to trade the cost that charge is use price mechanism, and Demsetz defines it the cost to exchange droit. Now, new system economics to trading the definition with more general expenses includes all with system or organization build or transitional, and the cost that the use of system or organization concerns. On common sense trade charge basically points to latter.  is in the market, trade the fee that charge uses price mechanism namely, negotiation and the charge that includes to the market trades and be searched for and obtain accurate market information place to pay to finish, charge that sign bond and the charge that supervise and uphold bond. Document [2] will trade charge definition is: "Trade charge includes advance preparation contract and after the event to control the cost that reachs compulsive contract to carry out, differ with operating costs, it is the charge that fulfils a contract. " trade charge is on certain level with asking for the charge that concerns trading information to connect is. With individual property right trades concerned action, bring about following trade the generation of charge [2] :   searchs concerned price to distributing, commodity quality and the information that labor throws; Seek the potential person that buy, person that sell and the information that concern their behavior and environment;   is become the price is inside when be born, the person that buy to make clear and the real position of the person that sell, and indispensable negotiation;   makes a contract;   undertakes supervisory to agreement opposite party, in order to define the other side whether break a contact;   is become after break a contact of the other side, carry out compulsively contract and seek compensation;   protects property right, in case tort of a third party, for example, defence pirate or right when trading illegally of the government be on guard. Process of production coordination of  article general trades mediumly charge calls synergic charge. Synergic charge is by the different level cent of generation the following 6:  (the charge of the information such as the price that 1) seeks the charge of information to be used at searching for potential co-worker and its product to concern, quality, credit, or the fee that is used to facilitate other is searched for at the respect such as advertisement, trade catalogue.  (2) inspects charge to be used at inspecting collaboration the fee that square credence, engineering capability, level of management, quality assures ability to wait.  (3) negotiation and autograph make an appointment with charge to be used at talking things over product and / or the negotiation charge of the problem such as means of time of the norms of the service, function, price, delivery, settle accounts, intellectual property and responsibility of breach of contract and the charge that sign agreement.  (4) cooperates and design in executive process of harmonious fee agreement, make in waiting for the cost that has cooperative to reach pair of collaboration, appear the cost that has harmony when the problem.  (the cost that 5) controls charge to supervise the other side to fulfil contract correctly.  (the fee that 6) after the event is liquidated or compulsive agreement implements. The synergic charge in process of  company cooperation is afore-mentioned 6 charge the sum. The manpower that these charge cost with place commonly and time are concerned. Normally, happen in products plan, raw material (bought-in component) purchase, the phase such as cooperation part treatment or sale, following plan institute are shown. Nextpage1.

The finite reason that the germ of the charge of origin generation cooperation of 2 cooperation charge is a person and opportunistic tendency [3, 4]  . Finite reason is to show the person is in subjective go up pursuit is rational, but because information processing and cognitive ability, communication ability are limited, make the person can accomplish this on finite degree only. The activity that finite reason means person and business is impossible that complete bond is changed, generate the uncertainty of environment and behavior necessarily from this. Beforehand environment uncertainty is a feature with cannot describing synergic condition of future accurately. The uncertainty of this kind of form causes a company for acclimatization, must adopt precautionary measures and raise cost. For example, be opposite of potential partner when discriminating what chime discusses to talk things over, with respect to the charge that cannot include all future adequately to may arise. Below this kind of circumstance, direct cost includes communication, talk things over and coordinate charge; Opportunity cost includes the charge that needs to get used to the emergencies place that cannot foreknow. As a result of the uncertainty of behavior, the true feature of affirmatory before the agreement potential associate is impossible almost; After signing an agreement, supervise and confirm associate honor the agreement the circumstance may be costly. Accordingly, must install supervisory chime to discuss carry out a mechanism compulsively, come true affirmatorily in order to ensure, such, produce the charge problem that function evaluates. By the direct beforehand cost that behavior uncertainty causes, include to discriminate and choose companionate cost, cost of direct after the event and determine the process of companionate function is concerned, opportunity cost includes beforehand to cannot identify appropriate (optimal) because associate and after the event need the productivity loss that adjust and produces possibly.  is opportunistic it is to show below particular case the policymaker is met con sex ground is gone after from benefit, and understand beforehand hard, its behave a form to lying, pilfer and deceit wait, among them more it is complex beguiling form. More general opportunistic point to release not complete or ill-natured information, especially purposeful misdirect, ill-natured, mask, puzzle or promiscuous, the gender mixes the information asymmetry that brings about a person to be from this release uncertainty, make economy organizes an issue more complication. According to above analysis, form of the classification of charge of the cooperation in producing production business the course, expression and origin rank are expressed 1. The behaves formal cooperation charge origin information of charge of the classification that expresses 1 cooperation charge, expression form and cooperation of type of item of origin cooperation expense seeks charge direct cost information seeks charge finite reason (finite information processing and communication.

The synergic cost dominant position that 3 network create is made in network in, the enterprise participates in the dynamic alliance that is aimed at specific product or some service with credit and core ability. In the network, information travels with velocity of light, get very convenient, the enterprise seeks a partner on the net when, the fare that search and obtains place to want information is very low; The enterprise can reveal the manufacturing process of his design engineering capability and product on the net; Wait for information through amassing the engineering capability that concerns potential partner and reputation extensively, can reduce pair of potential partners inspect charge; Both sides can undertake negotiation negotiating on the net; In cooperative process, each just can discuss on the net and coordinate all sorts of designs to create a problem; To verify executive condition of the agreement to the other side, the enterprise can show the manufacturing case of synergic product on the net; When serving for the user, the enterprise can deliver a technology to serve a data through the network, undertake long-range breakdown is diagnosed even, begin after service to wait. The behavior kind that  expresses 2 pairs of network to make cooperation of the company in mode produce a course and tradition made mode undertake contrast. Interrelate as the whole world of the network of moving fare of gender and network reduce (for example, dial at present get online to be close to basically already 0 receive) , network makes the company cooperation below mode make a process, saved investment of communication transportation expenses and much labor power, time, reduced the direct cost in company efforts cost.  is made in network in, because the network delivers the quick sex of information and network,interrelate quality, increased the choice scope of the synergic associate of the enterprise, can be in the whole nation even the whole world chooses a partner; The enterprise can gather the information such as the engineering capability that concerns potential partner, credit extensively, facilitate undertake discriminating to the partner, choose righter partner. The characteristic that the comparative project tradition that  expresses 2 network to make means of the behavior in mode and tradition create pattern makes mode network make mode network create pattern seeks information all sorts of ordering goods that connection of trade catalogue and the conference, advertisement, phone, present connection carries search, the direct cost that seeks information is reduced significantly make an on-the-spot investigation seek advice, the spot inspects search to all alone be revealed on engine, net, textual research of center of the attestation on the net, spot carries a network remote make an on-the-spot investigation, the direct cost that make an on-the-spot investigation reduces negotiation and autograph to arrange phone and fax connection significantly, talk things over face to face discuss on email, net board, mark of the contest on the net and bid, the direct cost that collective contest price negotiates reduces cooperative chime to move phone and fax connection significantly, discuss on present communication email, net board, system of design of configuration of the product on the net, network supplies chain management system and intellectual management system to have club through the network, direct cost of cooperation reduces supervisory phone and fax connection significantly, the spot makes an on-the-spot investigation reveal on the inquiry that carries email, net, of center of the attestation on the management of system of plan of network company natural resources, net supervise through the network remote supervise, supervisory direct cost reduces after the event to liquidate settle accounts of bank of network of bank settle accounts to reduce settle accounts cost significantly, quicken capital have enough to meet need to be in cooperative process, when encountering uncertain change, the enterprise can in time obtain wants information, adopt answer measure necessarily, what utmost ground reduces pair of uncertain incident is incommensurate and the productivity loss of generation. Accordingly, network creates pattern, can reduce an enterprise to have opportunity cost of cooperation greatly. 2 network of  make the theory of productivity advantage system of mode think, the function of any system, for example, an organization (enterprise) productivity, can express with following model: In Ps(t)=E(t)R(t) ∑ Pe (t) type:  Ps (t) -- organize the productivity in hour T;    E(t) -- the environmental quality that organizes in hour T;    R(t) -- the synergic condition between member of hour T organization, namely " constituent effect " level; Pe(t) of    ∑ -- the productivity in the organization is unit (the person in be like an enterprise and equipment) the gather of the productivity in hour T, ∑ Pe (t)=P1(t)+P2(t)+ ... + Pn(t) , (N>1) . Compare to facilitate, the productivity of the enterprise below will traditional production pattern expresses with hour T0, and the productivity that creates network the company below mode expresses with hour T1, traditional production pattern issues the productivity of the enterprise to be: Pe (t0) of Ps (t0)=E(t0)R(t0) ∑ . In other condition (the capital that is like an enterprise and manpower investment) below changeless circumstance, the company that executive network creates is in product collaboration production process, besides having the advantage that reduces synergic cost, still have other dominant position (3) seeing a table. Because the range of choice of influence meaning partner that Nextpage expresses the opposite of reason of productivity advantage project that 3 network make to produce power seeks information in the network very convenient, and fare is low, the enterprise can choose a partner inside bigger range, find the best partner such as quality, price, date of delivery likely, make manufacturing cost is reduced;     has convenient sex of collaboration as a result of the enterprise in the network, encounter the market that fits oneself dominant position good luck or have new product originality and when relying on oneself to cannot be finished, the enterprise can form alliance with other company conveniently, rapid and occupational market, outspread the ability of the enterprise and market limits, accordingly, have bigger flexible answer ability to organize environmental quality to improve with the market,  E(t1  ) = K1  ( of E(t0 of S)  )  ; Make improvement condition of the cooperation between the enterprise and constituent effect level, r(t1)=k2  (S) R(t0  )   among them K1  ( of S) , K2 (S) is the environmental improvement that concerns with S of companionate choice limits respectively factor and constituent level improve factor, be S add function, k1  (S)>1, k2  (S)>1 network is made bring about  of S of choice limits  to increase, improve condition of the cooperation between the enterprise and products plan of constituent effect level to as a result of,make cycle significantly the advantage of the network, wait through searching the action on engine or net to bid can find potential partner quickly, browse through the network examine the credit situation that assesses the other side and design engineering capability, through discussing on the net board the harmonious problem in can solving negotiation and cooperative process conveniently, collaboration just can be each on the net undertake cooperating with designing production waiting a moment. Accordingly, make the design of the product makes cycle shorten greatly, and material resources of economic labor power is devoted, enhance competition ability and raise economic benefits to make the synergic condition between the enterprise and constituent effect level rise,  R(t1)=k3  (T) R(t0  )   among them the factor that K1(T) is level of the organization between the business that produces periodic T to concern with the product, be T decrease function,  of T of  of production cycle of K3(T)>1 products plan is shorter, the advantage that network produces is more outstanding specialization level of division of labor expands as what the partner chooses limits and trade of efficiency rise, will promote a society specialization level of division of labor, make of each enterprise specialization rate rises, each enterprise is dedicated the development at oneself core advantage, improve productivity through skill comes from practice, reduce cost, make the enterprise acquires interest of economy of division of labor; Because     specializations of degree rise, the enterprise is dedicated the core advantage at oneself, use likely consequently more efficient specialization equipment, through the cost of mass production production gives personalized product, the unit productivity gather in the competitive capacity that can increase a business further and economic benefits enterprise increases:  of  ∑ Pe(t1) =k4 (D)k5  (0  of  of  of D) ∑ Pe(t) , make condition of the cooperation between the enterprise and constituent level rise:   of  of  of R(t1)= K6(D)R(t0)  among them K4(D) is with specialization degree of division of labor, spend with the adroitness of unit of the productivity in the enterprise then (efficiency) concerned factor; K5(D) is specialization with what the enterprise uses device the unit productivity factor that degree concerns; K6(D) is with specialization factor of level of the organization between the company that level of division of labor concerns, be D add function, network of K4(D) , K5(D) , K6(D)>1 is brought about specialization, the amount of supply and demand that makes the efficiency of each productivity unit raises information and network of synergic process vitrification to be able to be enterprise and consumer to offer concerned goods and price quantitative information, know the news such as the relevant product quoted price of other company, the level of the diaphaneity of the information on Internet and information interconnection is higher, this is opportunistic to be on guard, restrain opportunistic tendency to have very big effect, can control all sorts of unfair competition appearances. And make in network in, the enterprise participates in dynamic alliance for the foundation with credit and core ability, the credit of the enterprise will travel quickly on the network, the vitrification market environment of stimulative information improves:  of  of  E(t1)= K7(E) E(t0) among them K7(E) is the factor that concerns with improvement of market environment E, be E add function, k7(E)>1 network brings about market environment optimize through the watch 3 can see, in network production mode, because the enterprise enlarges the partner's choice limits, accelerate products plan to make cycle, promote specialization the advantage such as the vitrification of division of labor, information and synergic process, the synergic condition of ameliorable enterprise and constituent level, raise unit productivity and improvement environmental quality, produce an effect to business productivity thereby. These elements are to the result of productivity synergism: Pe (t0) of ∑ of Ps(t1)=E(t1)R(t1) ∑ Pe(t1)= K1(S)k2(S)k3(T)k4(D)k5(D)k6(D)k7(E)E(t0)R(t0) or Ps(t1)=K(S, t, d, e)Ps (t0) among them:  K(S, t, d, e)= K1(S)k2(S)k3(T)k4(D)k5(D)k6(D)k7(E) , and K1(S) , K2(S) , K3(T) , K4(D) , K5(D) , K6(D) , K7(E) is more than 1, because of this K(S, t, d, e)1, perhaps say, ps (t1)Ps (t0) . That is to say, the productivity below network production mode is ambitious the business productivity that falls at traditional production pattern. Accordingly, in network production mode, the enterprise is thrown in labor and the changeless circumstance such as capital investment falls, because the partner chooses limits to expand, the design makes cycle shorten, level of social division of labor rises and the put together collaboration of the element such as market environment improvement is used, the productivity that improves a business greatly, make economic benefits rises significantly. Production mode of 3 case network is reducing   synergic charge and the partial dominant position that improve business productivity aspect, already was confirmed by industry practice.  3.

Practice is purchased on the net of Inc. of 1 Nantong machine tool in April 2000, inc. of Nantong machine tool serves the attempt that makes be purchased on the net below the help of business in an electron business affairs, tens of home suppliers around move of this company " mark " launch contest price, fall finally in circumstance of steely price bullish, obtained than before cost is low 6.

The advantage of 9 % . Of the same age on May 16, this company asks this the home is online purchase service business help to purchase overbalance 9 million yuan industry raw material. This online 9 kinds of products that purchase have nearly 30 suppliers to enter contest bid. Final result is: Of two kinds of products depreciate extent is in 50 % above, of 9 kinds of products depreciate on average extent is amounted to 20.

55 % . Decide 9 million yuan formerly purchase total, achieved 1 million yuan savings.  3.

The attempt is purchased on the net of Inc. of 2 some turbine some turbine Inc. is purchasing a process in, search information through Internet, make of a few products purchase valence to be reduced substantially, be like asbestine rubber slab by every kilogram 8.

9 yuan drop for 4.

3 yuan, wire rope drops 30 yuan by every kilogram it is 14 yuan, h profiled bar by every tons drop 5800 yuan it is 3900 yuan, only these a few annual are an enterprise managing cost 170 thousand yuan, and its investment is an online computer only.  is on the net, the user can accomplish hundreds respond to a single call, goods easily to compare 3, the product that the choice needs to the cheapest place and reduce opportunity cost; The enterprise is OK the direct cost such as cost of the poor travelling expenses with not little leave out, long distance call. And the 70 % above that goods and materials of general industry business purchases cost to hold manufacturing totle drilling cost, with purchase relevant manpower resource to also have the proportion that comparative, from this managing capital is very remarkable.  3.

3The linear ordering mode of DELL company and industry are other the manufacturer is different, DELL company is not the fraction that put the computer library of stored in a barn and carries various places sell business to undertake selling, founded however a kind of new sale pattern -- by order production hand-in-hand travel is sold continuously. Be in early 1996, the client of DELL is configured directly with respect to the Internet site that can pass DELL and order the computer, the 40% ~ that at present the sale on the net of this company occupies total sales 50% . Carry this kind of kind, reduced current segment, the difference of price of high specified number of common in traditional channel agent and shopkeeper disappeared. The main competitor look that as traditional as support pattern has selling is compared, the computer of DELL has 10% ~ the price advantage of 15% . Pass online service, generator and consumer exchange information directly, produce an amount according to demand arrangement of the client directly, hold market rhythm in time, came true not to have stock sale thoroughly, reduced stock cost greatly. The linear mode that order enlarged the sale limits of the company on the net, in the user that buys the computer from DELL company site, the small company of the customer that has 80% and half above never has bought the product of DELL. Among them if be nodded without the website,the person of 1/4 thinks, they won't have such consumptive action, their average expenditure wants prep above the consumption of general DELL client. DELL has made the trade of the biggest production of table computer. Photograph of production mode of 4 conclusion network creates pattern to the tradition and character, as a result of network space spatio-temporal constrictive with the network interrelate the gender, make information delivers fast, information to get convenient and cheap, can reduce the direct cost that the cooperation between the enterprise produces substantially thereby. Interrelate as a result of the whole world of the network quality, make the limits of company option partner increases, and choose quality, price, date of delivery to wait likely more the co-worker of actor, reduced the opportunity cost that company efforts produces.  looks from industry practice, undertaking network makes initial stage, the business fits from the profit that reduces gain of opportunity cost side to arrive apparent. In addition, network production mode still is brought for the enterprise shorten the design of the product makes cycle, promote specialization division of labor, and the vitrification of information and synergic process, improve the dominant position such as market environment. As a result of the synergism of these advantages, will make productivity level gets rising, economic benefits and competitive ability increase. Use network technology and IT to transform traditional industry, executive network is made, it is the developing country shortens with the developed country economically the good good luck of difference. Of course, executive network makes need have fixed investment, the construction cost that is like a website, the idea that more important is a person (especially the idea that industry upper levels leads) the need that should get used to network to make with the organization of the enterprise, moving mechanism. CNC Milling